In an attempt to shed light on the relationship between art and realism in Italian Neorealist film, Andre Bazin wrote the article “An Aesthetic of Reality”, analysing one of the most contentious subjects in the study of film – how a director can create a piece that is truly both realistic and artistic, staying loyal to a blueprint of realism whilst creating a worthwhile artistic work: in other words, adding to reality without changing it.read more
Victor Erice’s El espíritu de la colmena was made in 1973, just two short years before the death of Franco and four years prior to the end of censorship in Spanish cinemas. Its timing placed it amongst the first Spanish films to be able to give the perspective of the defeated republicans without fear of reprisals. However it avoids the melodramatic pitfalls of political cinema and is far from a bombastic political polemic, instead opting for quiet filmic metaphor and narrative. This essay will look at how Erice captures the cadence of the era through visual style and narrative form.read more
Employees can face increased levels of anxiety or fear from changes or proposed changes in the work environment. These changes are then resisted, caused by fear of the unknown, this is not normally malicious, just an innate reaction. A major risk of implementation of organisational change is the suspicion of some employees to the proposed changes. With uncertainty and fear for their future, employees can slow down the change process. Individuals can resist by withholding information and hindering the process wherever possible. Resistance can become overt i.e. in industrial action, including working to rule and strikes (Coram, R, and Burnes, B. 2001).read more
Motivating employees, is one of the most important managerial functions (Nel et al., 2004). Motivation seems at the heart of management, and therefore should be one of the foremost subjects to be studied when it comes to organizational behaviour and human resource management. Therefore motivation seems central to organizational human behaviour theories, and forever have theorists tried to explain what motivates people, arguably simply to then apply new theories on people working in organizations, in hopes of making them work more dynamic and more efficient, in order to make organizations run more effectively.read more
Technological developments have certainly changed people’s lives considerably. One’s behavior is considerably dependent on promotion of products, especially technological ones. It can be seen that technological promotions such as the ‘smart house’ is something that can be promoted easily, and therefore has a greater tendency to bust its way into a person’s life.read more
In this chapter Accelerated Learning (AL) will be described and critiqued. The implications of AL for the primary school will be considered in the light of successes reported in the media and on commercial websites. However, due to a lack of rigorous research into accelerated learning, it will be important to avoid drawing hasty conclusions from such anecdotal evidence.read more
In this literature review we examine in the context of the UK clothing industry the growth and emergence of what has been termed the discount or value clothing segment led by brands such as George at ASDA. The review here aims to give a synthesis of the background to these developments, linking theoretical observations as to explaining their growth with empirical observations concerning their capturing of a significant part of the UK clothing retail market. The impact of these developments is further assessed in relation to the competitive pressures now experienced by mid-market retailers such as for example Bhs and Marks and Spencer.read more
Arthur Asher Miller is one of the most influential playwrights of the twentieth century, whose plays have had resonance not only in America, but all over the world. This renown as a playwright of depth and insight has increased over his career, and he has been described as “a moralist, a playwright of ideas, or a social dramatist.” (Martin, R.A., & Centola, S.R., 1996, 1). Miller’s work has been firmly placed in the category of ‘social plays’, both by drama critics, social commentators and by the man himself.read more
With the exclusion of the Western, perhaps no other genre of Hollywood film making is more a product of its time than Film Noir. As Marc Vernet (1993) details, Noir has its socio-political roots in post-War Europe and its aesthetic roots in German Expressionism, both examples of milieus that depend and arise out of the polarisation and the exploration of binaries (political in the former, aesthetic and thematic in the latter). It is little wonder, then, that Noir’s popularity coincided with the social paranoia that was gradually making itself felt in America (and most notably in Hollywood) in the late 1940s and 50s and that would find ultimate expression in McCarthyism; a point made by Robert Aldrich, director of Kiss Me Deadly (1955) and cited by Jon Tuska (1984) .read more
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