This Life first hit our television screens on 18 March 1996. Its boldness and honesty was refreshing in its realistic use of language and direct examination of such taboo subjects as drug-taking, homosexuality and rampant sexuality among the more youthful branches of the professional classes. But it would be unjust to say that the programme was all about sensationalism, in fact it was the opposite, it was about realism.read more
In an attempt to shed light on the relationship between art and realism in Italian Neorealist film, Andre Bazin wrote the article “An Aesthetic of Reality”, analysing one of the most contentious subjects in the study of film – how a director can create a piece that is truly both realistic and artistic, staying loyal to a blueprint of realism whilst creating a worthwhile artistic work: in other words, adding to reality without changing it.read more
It is an interesting predicament how Jewish people in general have been portrayed in literature. Mainly they are known for the horrific treatment they received during the Second World War. Jewish children, immortalized by those such as Anne Frank in her diary, are pitied in literature, are thought of as having suffered continuously, and having lived lives which evoke sentiments of sympathy. Indeed, it is the case that for the most part, Jewish people, and their children have been portrayed in this way – it is perhaps natural that this happened when we follow the events of history, but this is not the only time we meet Jewish children in literature.read more
Victor Erice’s El espíritu de la colmena was made in 1973, just two short years before the death of Franco and four years prior to the end of censorship in Spanish cinemas. Its timing placed it amongst the first Spanish films to be able to give the perspective of the defeated republicans without fear of reprisals. However it avoids the melodramatic pitfalls of political cinema and is far from a bombastic political polemic, instead opting for quiet filmic metaphor and narrative. This essay will look at how Erice captures the cadence of the era through visual style and narrative form.read more
Technological developments have certainly changed people’s lives considerably. One’s behavior is considerably dependent on promotion of products, especially technological ones. It can be seen that technological promotions such as the ‘smart house’ is something that can be promoted easily, and therefore has a greater tendency to bust its way into a person’s life.read more
Motivating employees, is one of the most important managerial functions (Nel et al., 2004). Motivation seems at the heart of management, and therefore should be one of the foremost subjects to be studied when it comes to organizational behaviour and human resource management. Therefore motivation seems central to organizational human behaviour theories, and forever have theorists tried to explain what motivates people, arguably simply to then apply new theories on people working in organizations, in hopes of making them work more dynamic and more efficient, in order to make organizations run more effectively.read more
The increased competitive aspects and importance of increasing bottom line performance by the officers and directors of public as well as large corporations has caused management to seek ever increased cost-saving solutions utilizing globalization. The realities of today’s highly competitive business environment and the use of outsourcing as a solution to lower costs in specific aspects of the production and or delivery of goods and services has evolved to the point where it is an essential component in corporate cost savings. In the early 1800’s the fabric covering wagons in America and that was also used for sails on clipper ships were outsourced to Scotland and the raw materials, fabric, was imported from India (Global Envision, 2005)read more
There are a number of definitions for the term ‘performance management’ and many of these are incredibly complex however they all share the same basic tenet that it involves identifying desired outcomes and the standards that need to be met along the way to achieve this. Budgeting, reporting, communication and accountability are all key features of the processread more
Employees can face increased levels of anxiety or fear from changes or proposed changes in the work environment. These changes are then resisted, caused by fear of the unknown, this is not normally malicious, just an innate reaction. A major risk of implementation of organisational change is the suspicion of some employees to the proposed changes. With uncertainty and fear for their future, employees can slow down the change process. Individuals can resist by withholding information and hindering the process wherever possible. Resistance can become overt i.e. in industrial action, including working to rule and strikes (Coram, R, and Burnes, B. 2001).read more
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